SubscribeGift a Sub
Enable cache 100
Horse Adoption, Welfare, and Charities

Brooke USA: Welfare for Working Horses

This donkey is just one of tens of thousands of equines who work in the brick kilns of India. Photo courtesy FDowsonPhotography/ BrookeUSA

A Pakistani man pours jet-black lumps of coal into oversized sacks strapped to the back of his little white donkey as they prepare to haul coal out of a mine. He shares how much he depends on his equine partner: “If I lose my donkey, I lose everything.”

Elba, a wife and mother living in a village of Guatemala, owns two donkeys, Joaquin and Seforina. Since there is no water in her community, Elba walks with her donkeys 45 minutes to a stream to gather water and carry it home.
The area has one of the world’s highest drought levels, and Elba and her husband struggle not only to feed their children, but also to grow enough forage for their donkeys.

“The only thing that matters to me is that my animals have enough food for the summer; that season is hard and it’s extremely difficult to find food for them,” says Elba.

A horse owner in Nepal; many working equines in Nepal earn a living for their owners by transporting goods to remote villages in the mountains. Photo courtesy FDowsonPhotography/ BrookeUSA

A family in Kenya keeps a small male donkey. He hauls water, food, and supplies and helps them till the soil. Without him, the family will be severely challenged, and they don’t have the money to purchase another equine.

They wake one morning to find their donkey gone—likely stolen to be slaughtered for his hide, which will be traded on the black market in Asia. The family is devastated beyond words.

These and hundreds of thousands of similar stories are a way of life in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East. While working equines in the U.S., Canada, and Western Europe are more of a novelty than the norm today, there are still many areas of the world in which humans rely heavily on their four-legged helpers to earn a subsistence living.

When Brooke and her husband arrived in Cairo in 1930, they found around 5,000 remaining ex-British Army horses suffering from overwork, malnutrition and ill health. She went to work raising funds and buying back these horses, and by 1934, founded the Old War Horse Memorial Hospital in Cairo. Photo courtesy Brooke/Brooke USA

An estimated 100 million working horses, donkeys, and mules around the world support approximately 600 million people. These animals toil under the harshest conditions in some of the poorest countries on the planet. The international equine charity, Brooke, and its affiliate organizations including Brooke USA, have been helping these hard-working animals—and the humans that depend on them—for over 80 years.

The Origin of Brooke and Welfare for Working Horses

Brooke, which is based in Great Britain, is now the leading global welfare organization for working horses. It was established due to the efforts of the charity’s namesake, Dorothy Brooke.

Dorothy Brooke, circa 1930s. Photo courtesy Brooke/Brooke USA

In 1930, her husband, British Army Major General Geoffrey Brooke, was sent for duty in Egypt. She accompanied him, and they arrived in Cairo to find hundreds of ex-military horses from the British, Australian and American Armies had been left behind after World War I. These working horses had been sold to locals and were enduring incredibly difficult working conditions, with most being of advanced age, emaciated and infirm.

Brooke set out to buy back these working horses so that they could be either rehabilitated or humanely euthanized, depending on the individual horse’s best interest. In 1931, she raised the equivalent of 20,000 British pounds in today’s money (about $28,000 USD) through public fundraising spurred by writing a letter to the editor of The Morning Post in London (now The Daily Telegraph). By 1934, she had purchased the freedom of 5,000 ex-war horses.

Realizing that there were still thousands of other working horses, donkeys, and mules in Egypt, that same year she established Old War Horse Memorial Hospital in Cairo (later called the Brooke Hospital for Animals), with the promise of free veterinary care. Brooke also worked to establish shade shelters and watering stations for Cairo’s working animals, and by 1938, the hospital also had a motorized equine ambulance.

Over the next 80-plus years, Brooke expanded their mission to many other countries and opened more hospitals and shelters, although they do not set up traditional clinics now. Today they continue to provide training and support to animal owners and equine industry service providers.

A member of the Brooke West Africa team examines an undernourished mare and foal in Senegal. Photo courtesy FDowsonPhotography/ BrookeUSA

Additionally, Brooke and Brooke USA assist during national disasters such as floods, droughts, earthquakes, and wildfires. In 2016, Brooke passed the milestone of reaching two million working equines thus far.

They have also expanded into university research and community projects, as well as working to influence governmental policy. In the summer of 2019, Brooke was officially recognized by the United Nations as an accredited UN Environment Program.

Helping Working Horses and Their People

The overriding principle that guides Brooke and Brooke USA charitable work is to teach the people in a particular country the value of keeping horses healthy, and to help those human caretakers understand that healthy horses work better, live longer, and thus can support their humans in a more sustainable way.

This often requires doing away with traditional practices, which are ineffective and occasionally cruel, and unlocking the underlying human compassion for horses that can be lost in the difficulty of subsistence living and geopolitical struggles.

Rather than just handing out money and leaving an area, Brooke provides education, supplies, and assistance not only to working horse owners, but also to locally based veterinarians, paraveterinary workers (veterinary technicians), farriers, feed suppliers, and those who make and repair tack and horse-drawn vehicles.

A boy in Senegal, Africa, with the donkey that his family uses in agriculture work. Photo courtesy FDowsonPhotography/ BrookeUSA
By utilizing these in-country professionals, who are known by the local population, positive change in creating welfare for working horses is more likely to take hold and last in the lives of at-risk animals and their owners. It’s a win-win for everyone; not only do the equine owners earn a better living and the horses lead happier lives, but industry service providers learn new, valuable skills. Brooke has also learned that targeting education about animal care toward women and children in a community is an effective tool.

The Launch of Brooke USA

In 2008, Brooke USA was originally chartered as American Friends of the Brooke and then relaunched in 2015 as Brooke USA. With their main offices in Lexington, KY., Brooke USA’s mission is to help working horses in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, the Americas, and the Caribbean.
Brooke USA Board of Directors Chairperson Katherine Kaneb with one of her adopted Miniature Horses, Starsky. Starsky was an ambassador for the 2018 FEI World Equestrian Games in Tryon, North Carolina. Photo by Elena Lusenti for Brooke USA

Katherine Kaneb, current Brooke USA Board of Directors Chair, feels it is their responsibility to make sure funds received from donors are put to good use, and explains they are careful in the selection of programs to fund.

“We know that healthy, cared-for equines lead to a better life for humans,” says Kaneb. “In addition to our ability to initiate and fund our own programming and advocacy efforts within the Americas, our business model focuses on granting funds to nonprofit organizations that are already making a difference so we can magnify their impact, or supporting nonprofits that present us unique, well thought-out programs that creatively reach underserved communities.”

One current project is fundraising to purchase small plots of land in Nicaragua that will serve as training units for forage production and storage. In addition to work in other countries, Brooke USA has recently worked in the U.S. on COVID-19 relief funding and helped with natural disasters in Texas and on the West Coast.

A Brooke Pakistan vet; this veterinary team from one of Brooke Pakistan’s mobile veterinary clinics is treating the harness wounds of a working donkey. Photo courtesy FDowsonPhotography/ BrookeUSA

How to Help Provide Welfare for Working Horses

If your interest is piqued and you’d like to find ways to further Brooke USA’s mission, here are some ways you can help:

◆ Donate to the cause. Donations to recognize a loved one, favorite equine, or business are a fulfilling way to gift and give back at the same time.
◆ Host a fundraiser. Brooke USA will provide brochures, donation boxes and ideas for hosting an event.
◆ Spread the word in the equestrian community and beyond.
◆ Be an advocate for Brooke USA’s mission to legislators.
◆ Teach humane treatment and welfare for all living creatures to the next generation.

Notable Ambassadors

Brooke USA Ambassador Allison Brock. Photo by Allen Macmillan

A number of top equestrians from many disciplines work as Brooke USA ambassadors, advocating welfare for working horses. Three shared why they decided to join: Olympic dressage rider Allison Brock, champion show jumper Hannah Selleck, and five-star eventer Allison Springer.

Brock rode the stallion Rosevelt on the bronze medal-winning U.S. Olympic Team in 2016.

“I became involved with Brooke USA through my employers, who are huge contributors and advocates of Brooke USA. It’s a charity that any equestrian can get behind wholeheartedly, because when you take care of donkeys, you take care of people.”

Brooke USA Ambassador Hannah Selleck. Photo by Elena Lusenti

Selleck, who competes in top-level jumping and breeds sport horses, shares her story.

“I was introduced to Brooke USA by a friend, and I immediately fell in love with the mission of helping working equines in the developing world and the people who depend on them. More importantly, I thought I could help by bringing awareness to their projects.”

Brooke USA Ambassador Allison Springer. Photo courtesy Macmillan Photography

Springer, who with long-time partner Arthur served as an alternate for the U.S. Eventing Team for the 2012 London Olympic Games, also believes deeply in Brooke USA’s mission.

“I joined forces with Brooke USA as a celebrity bartender for an event at the Tryon International Equestrian Center in 2017. This gave me an opportunity to learn more about the mission. Many of my friends are deeply involved too. I was very honored when asked to become a Brooke USA ambassador.


This article about welfare for working horses appeared in the July 2021 issue of Horse Illustrated magazine. Click here to subscribe!

Kim MacMillan

Kim MacMillan graduated from Purdue University where she majored in agriculture communications and animal science. She has been reporting on equestrian sports, agriculture, science, travel and history for over 35 years. She and her husband Allen, who is a professional photographer, have covered several World Equestrian, Olympic and Pan American Games. The MacMillans share their Northeastern Indiana farm with several much-loved horses, dogs and cats.

View Comments

  • "The horse(and other equines) is THE most abused animal, bar none. If this article doesn't prove that to you, then nothing ever will.

Recent Posts

Top 7 Trail Riding Trips

Horse vacations have evolved from dusty guided trail rides on sleepy horses to a wide array of rides, drives, and…

4 hours ago

Training Your Horse to Cross Water

Crossing water is one of those things that’s either fun to do with your horse, or it’s exasperating—there doesn’t seem…

2 days ago

Take a Trip Backstage with the Horse & Country Livestream Crew

As equestrian sports continue to grow in popularity, there are more and more exciting competitions taking place around the world…

3 days ago

ASPCA Right Horse Adoptable Horse of the Week: Frida Kahlo

Welcome to Horse Illustrated’s weekly installment of the Right Horse Adoptable Horse of the Week, offered in partnership with the…

4 days ago

Vet Adventures: How Not to Treat a Horse’s Wound

I’d been treating my patient, a sweet Quarter Horse mare named Maizey, for almost two weeks. Maizey had been running…

5 days ago

Underdog Horses Become Champions

Aubrey Torrez, 29, is the first to confess that she’s always been an advocate for the underdog. “In this sport,…

6 days ago